Extraction method optimization and the seasonal effect in the biological activities and phenolic compounds of Brazilian green propolis





antioxidant, antibacterial activity, natural products, total phenols, seasonality.


Propolis has been considered a resinous substance with a complex chemical composition that is collected from several plant species by Apis mellifera bees, and used by man as an alternative to the healing of diseases and to keep a good health. The chemical composition of propolis is related to the biodiversity of the region visited by the bees and also to the season of collection. This research purpose was to optimize the production methodology of propolis’ ethanol extract production and to evaluate the effect of seasonality in the chemical composition and biological activities of this product. Propolis’ samples were collected from the apiary at the Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas Gerais - Campus Muzambinho and were used to make ethanol extracts. In the optimization stage, different ethanolic solution concentration, extraction method and drying temperatures were used. For the analysis of the seasonal effect, propolis was collected from the same place in different seasons. The results showed that the 80% ethanolic solution, the extraction temperature of 70oC and drying at 45oC were the ones that stood out the most. Regarding the effect of seasonality on the chemical composition and biological activities of propolis, it is clear that there are differences between the propolis collected in different seasons.


Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Amanda Tristão Santini, Universidade Federal de Viçosa

Licenciatura em Ciências Biológicas pelo IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho.

Mestrado em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade Federal de Alfenas.

Doutorado (em andamento) em Microbiologia Agrícola pela Universidade Federal de Viçosa.

Atua na área de produtos naturais, avaliando as atividades biológicas e composição química de própolis de Apis mellifera, geoprópolis de abelhas nativas sem ferrão, extratos de fungos endofíticos e óleos essenciais. Atua ainda na área de microbioma de abelhas nativas brasileiras.

Carolina Lima Silva, Universidade Federal de Alfenas

Graduação em Ciências Biológicas pelo IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho.

Mestranda do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas da UNIFAL-MG.

Flávia Apolinário Galera, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas Gerais - Campus Muzambinho

Graduação em Ciências Biológicas pelo IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho.

Paula Tristão Santini

Graduação em Ciências Biológicas pelo IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho.

Mestre e Doutora em Fisiologia Vegetal pela Univesidade Federal de Lavras.

Instrutora do SENAR-MG.

Edivaldo Aparecido Nunes Martins, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas Gerais - Campus Muzambinho

Graduação em Medicina Veterinária pelo Centro Universitário da Fundação de Ensino Octávio Bastos.

Mestre e Doutor em Clínica Cirúrgica Veterinária pela FMVZ-USP.

Professor do IFSULDEMINAS - Campus Muzambinho.

Masaharu Ikegaki, Universidade Federal de Alfenas

Graduação em Ciências Biológicas pela Universidade Federal de São Carlos.

Doutor em Ciências de Alimentos pela UNICAMP.

Professor da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Federal de Alfenas e orientador do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Biológicas na mesma universidade.

Ingridy Simone Ribeiro, Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Sul de Minas Gerais - Campus Muzambinho

Graduação em Ciências Biológicas pela UNIFAL-MG.

Mestre em Ciências (Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos), pela Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - USP e Doutora em Ciências (Química na Agricultura e no Ambiente), pelo Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura - USP.

Professora do Instituto Federal do Sul de Minas Gerais - Campus Muzambinho.


Batista, M. C. A., Batista, M. C. S., Sobrinho, J. A. N., Trindade, H. I., Silva, L. L. B., & Muller, J. B. B. S. (2016). Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of geopropolis produced by Melipona fasciculata (Meliponinae) in flooded fields and cerrado areas of Maranhão State, northeastern Brazil. Acta Amazonica, 46 (3), 315–322. doi: 10.1590/1983-084X/12_116. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/1809-4392201600034

Brand-Williams, W., Cuvelier, M. E., & Berset, C. (1995). Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lwt - Food Science and Technology, 28 (1), 25-30. doi: 10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0023-6438(95)80008-5

Brazil – Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply. (2001). Instrução Normativa n. 3 de 2001. Regulamentos Técnicos de Identidade e Qualidade de Apitoxina, Cera de Abelha, Geléia Real, Geléia Real Liofilizada, Pólen Apícola, Própolis e Extrato de Própolis [Normative Instruction no. 3, 2001. Technical Regulations on Identity and Quality of Apitoxin, Beewax, Royal Jelly, Lyophilized Royal Jelly, Bee Pollen, Propolis and Propolis Extract]. Brasilia, Brazil: Official Diary of the Union.

Cabral, I. S. R., Oldoni, T. L. C., Alencar, S. M., Rosalen, P. L., & Ikegaki, M. (2012). The correlation between the phenolic composition and biological activities of two varieties of Brazilian própolis (G6 and G12). Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 48 (3). doi 10.1590/S1984-82502012000300023. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1984-82502012000300023

Castro, M. L. Cury, J. A., Rosalen, P. L., Alencar, S. M., Ikegaki, M., Duarte, S., & Koo, H. (2007). Propolis from southeastern and northeastern of Brazil: the influence of seasonality in antibacterial activity and phenolic composition. Química Nova, 30 (7), 1512-1516. doi: 10.1590/S0100-40422007000700003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422007000700003

CLSI. (2015). Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically. Vol. 35, n. 2. Wayne, PA: Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute.

Ferreira, D. F. (2014). Sisvar: a Guide for its Bootstrap procedures in multiples comparisons. Ciência e Agrotecnologia, 38, (2). doi: 10.1590/S1413-70542014000200001 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-70542014000200001

Ferreira, V. U. (2017). Chemical characterization, antioxidant, anti-leukemic and antimicrobial activities of Southern Brazilian amber propolis (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from http://dspace.unipampa.edu.br:8080/jspui/handle/riu/1467.

Franchin, M., Rosalen, P. L., Cunha, M. G., Silva, R. L., Cólon, D. F., Bassi, G. S., … Cunha, T. M. (2016). Cinnamoyloxy-mammeisin Isolated from Geopropolis Attenuates Inflammatory Process by Inhibiting Cytokine Production: Involvement of MAPK, AP-1, and NF-?B. Journal of Natural Products, 79 (7), 1828–1833. doi: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00263. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00263

Fríon-Herrera, Y. F., Díaz-García, A., Ruiz-Fuentes, J., Rodriguez-Sánchez, H., & Sforcin, J. M. (2015). Brazilian green propolis induced apoptosis in human lung cancer A549 cells through mitochondrial-mediated pathway. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 67 (10), 1448-56. doi: 10.1111/jphp.12449. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jphp.12449

Gomes, M. F. F., Ítavo, C. C. B. F., Leal, C. R. B., Ítavo, L. C. V., & Lunas, R. C. (2016). In vitro antibacterial activity of brown propolis. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 36, (4), 279-282. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X2016000400005

Groot, A. C. (2013). Propolis: a review of properties, applications, chemical composition, contact allergy, and other adverse effects. American Contact Dermatitis Society, 24 (6), 263-82. doi: 10.1097/DER.0000000000000011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1097/DER.0000000000000011

Kujumgiev, A., Tsvetkova, I., Serkedjieva, Y., Bankova, V., Christov, R., & Popov, S. (1999). Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral activity of propolis of different geographic origin. Journal Of Ethnopharmacology, 64 (3), 235-240. doi: 10.1016/s0378-8741(98)00131-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00131-7

Machado, C. S., Mokochinski, J. B., Lira, T. O., Oliveira, F. C. E., Cardoso, M. V., Ferreira, & R. G. Torres, Y. R. (2016). Comparative study of chemical compositions and biological activity of yellow, green, brown, and red Brazilian propolis. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. doi: 10.1155/2016/6057650. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/6057650

Machado, J. L., Assunção, A. K., Silva, M. C., Reis, A. S., Costa, G. C., Arruda, D. S., ... Nascimento, F. R. (2012). Brazilian green propolis: anti-inflammatory property by an immunomodulatory activity. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. doi: 10.1155/2012/157652. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/157652

Marcucci, M.C. (1995). Propolis: Chemical composition, biological properties and therapeutic activity. Apidologie, 26 (2), 83–99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1051/apido:19950202

Melo, A. A. M., Matsuda, A. H., & Almeida-Muradian, L. B. (2012). Identity and quality of propolis from four regions of Brazil. Revista Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 71 (3).

Monry, Y. M., Rodney, A. F. R., Rodrigues, M. V. N., Sant’ana, A. S., Silva, B. S., & Cabral, F. A (2017). Brazilian green propolis extracts obtained by conventional processes and by processes at high pressure with supercritical carbon dioxide, ethanol and water. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 130, 189-197. doi: 10.1016/j.supflu.2017.08.006. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.supflu.2017.08.006

Pandolfo, V. Z. (2014). Characterization and effect of the seasonal variation of organic propolis produced in Southern Brazil (Master’s thesis). Retrieved from https://teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/11/11141/tde-05012015-154728/pt-br.php.

Park, Y. K., Ikegaki, M., Abreu, J. A. S., & Alcici, N. M. F. (1998). Study of the preparation of the propolis extracts and its application. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 18 (3), 313-318. doi: 10.1590/S0101-20611998000300011. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20611998000300011

Pasupuleti, V. R. Sammugam, L., Ramesh, N., & Gan, S. H. (2017). Honey, propolis, and royal jelly: a comprehensive review of their biológica actions and health benefits. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. doi: 10.1155/2017/1259510. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1259510

Paulino, N., Teixeira, C., Martins, R., Amarilis, S., Dirsch, V. M., Vollmar, A. M., … Marcucci, M. C. (2006). Evaluation of the Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of a Brazilian Green Propolis. Planta Médica, 72 (10), 899-906. doi: 10.1055/s-2006-947185. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-947185

Peter, C. M., Picoli, T., Zani, J. L., Latosinski, G. S., Lima, M., Vargas, G. D., … Fischer, G. (2017). Antiviral and virucidal activity of hydroalcoholic extracts of propolis brown, green and jataí bees (Tetragonisca angustula) against Bovine Herpesvirus Type-1 (BoHV-1) and Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV). Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 37 (7). doi: 10.1590/s0100-736x2017000700003. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1590/s0100-736x2017000700003

Salgueiro, F. B., & Castro, R. N. (2016) Comparison between chemical composition and antioxidant activity of different extracts of green propolis. Química Nova, 39, (10), 1192-1199. doi: 10.21577/0100-4042.20160136. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21577/0100-4042.20160136

Schmidt, E. M., Strock, D., Chada, F. J. G., Finger, D., Sawaya, A. C. H. F., Eberlin, M. N., … Torres, Y. R. (2014). A comparison between characterization and biological properties of Brazilian fresh and aged propolis. BioMed Research International. doi: 10.1155/2014/257617. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/257617

Sforcin, J. M., Fernandes, A. J., Lopes, C. A., Bankova, V., & Funari, S. R. (2000). Seasonal effect on Brazilian propolis antibacterial activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 73 (1), 243-249. doi: 10.1016/s0378-8741(00)00320-2. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-8741(00)00320-2

Shimazawa, M., Chikamatsu, S., Morimoto, N., Mishima, S., Nagai, H., & Hara, H. (2005). Neuroprotection by Brazilian green propolis against in vitro and in vivo ischemic neuronal damage. Oxford University Press, 2 (2), 201-207. doi: 10.1093/ecam/neh078. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ecam/neh078

Silva, J. F. M., Souza, M. C., Matta, S. R., Andrade, M. R., & Vidal, F. V. N. (2006). Correlation analysis between phenolic levels of Brazilian propolis extracts and their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Food Chemistry, 99 (3), 431-435. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.055. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.055

Silva, S. S., Miranda, M. M., Costa, I. N., Watanabe, M. A. E., Pavanelli, W. R., Felipe, I., … Conchon-Costa, I. (2015). Leishmanicidal activity of brazilian propolis hydroalcoholic extract in Leishmania amazonensis. Semina: Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, 36 (2), 25-34. doi: 10.5433/1679-0367.2015v36n2p25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5433/1679-0367.2015v36n2p25

Singleton, V. L., Orthofer, R., & Lamuela-Raventós, R. M. (1999). Analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Oxidants and Antioxidants part A, 299, 152-178. doi: 10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0076-6879(99)99017-1

Souza, E. A., Inoue, H. T., Gomes, S. M. A., Funari, S. R. C., & Orsi, R. O. (2010). Physicochemical properties of propolis in function of seasonality and production method. Archivos de zootecnia, 59 (228), 571-576. DOI: https://doi.org/10.21071/az.v59i228.4712

Tiveron, A. P., Rosalen, P. L., Franchin, M., Lacerda, R. C., Bueno-Silva, B., Benso, B., ... Alencar, S. M. (2016). Chemical characterization and antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activities of South Brazilian organic propolis. PLoS ONE, 11 (11), 1–11. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0165588. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165588

Uzel, A., Sorkun, K., Onçag, O., Cogulu, D., Gençay, O., & Salih, B. (2005). Chemical compositions and antimicrobial activities of four different Anatolian propolis samples. Microbiological Research, 160 (2), 189-195. doi: 10.1016/j.micres.2005.01.002. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micres.2005.01.002

Wagh, V. D. (2013). Propolis: a wonder bees product and its pharmacological potentials. Advances in Pharmacological Sciences. doi: 10.1155/2013/308249. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/308249




Como Citar

Santini, A. T., Silva, C. L., Galera, F. A., Santini, P. T., Martins, E. A. N., Ikegaki, M., & Ribeiro, I. S. (2021). Extraction method optimization and the seasonal effect in the biological activities and phenolic compounds of Brazilian green propolis. HOLOS, 7, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.15628/holos.2021.11316




Artigos mais lidos pelo mesmo(s) autor(es)

Artigos Semelhantes

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 > >> 

Você também pode iniciar uma pesquisa avançada por similaridade para este artigo.